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Andorra profile
landlocked;

straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
Andorra history
The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees Mountains between the French and Spanish borders. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Seu d'Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified, with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. In the late 20th century, Andorra became a popular tourist destination. An estimated 10 million people visit each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty free goods. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its banking facilities, low taxes, and lack of customs duties. However, recent economic hardships have required Andorra to start taxing foreign investments and to implement stricter economic policies. Andorra is not a member of the European Union, but enjoys a special relationship with it and uses the Euro as its national currency.
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Conventional long form: Principality of Andorra

Conventional short form: Andorra

Local long form: Principat d'Andorra

Local short form: Andorra
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Andorra's capital city is Andorra la Vella
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Andorra Constitution:

Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991;

approved by referendum 14 March 1993;

effective 28 April 1993
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Andorra population growth rate: 0.274%
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Andorra highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
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Andorra lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
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About 2% of Andorra's land is arable.
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Gran Valira is the Longest River in Andorra
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Andorra birth rate is 9 births/1,000 population
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Andorra infant mortality rate is 4 deaths/1,000 live births
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Andorra fertility rate is 1.37 children born/woman
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Andorra climate:

temperate;

snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
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Top 10 cities of Andorra with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Andorra la Vella: 19,319
2. Escaldes-Engordany: 14,395
3. Encamp: 8,470
4. Sant Julià de Lòria: 7,518
5. La Massana: 4,987
6. Santa Coloma: 2,937
7. Ordino: 2,780
8. El Pas de la Casa: 2,613
9. Canillo: 2,025
10. Arinsal: 1,555
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Andorra ethnic groups:

Spanish - 43%
Andorran - 33%
Portuguese - 11%
French - 7%
other - 6%
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Andorra Exports:

tobacco products
furniture
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Andorra Imports:

consumer goods
food
electricity
interesting Andorra facts
unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms); note - each voter casts two separate ballots - one for the national list, one for the parish list

Administrative Divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia)
1. Andorra la Vella
2. Canillo
3. Encamp
4. Escaldes-Engordany
5. La Massana
6. Ordino
7. Sant Julia de Loria
Political parties and leaders:
there are four political parties at the national level:

Andorra for Change (ApC) - Eusebio NOMEN CALVET

Democrats for Andorra (DA) - Antoni MARTI PETIT], coalition including Liberal Party (PRA) and Reformist Coalition

Greens of Andorra - Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ

Social Democratic Party (PS) - Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY

note - there are also several smaller parties at the Parish level (one is Lauredian Union)